A Brief History Of Menzies
Menzies is a mining and pastoral town in the Eastern Goldfields, 730kms east of Perth.
The Shire of Menzies covers an approximate total area of 125,000 square kilometres. There is a total population of 235 people in Menzies and district as at June 2008. A further approximately 150 people live in the Tjuntjuntjara Community near the South Australian border.
Menzies is not a large town and doesn't appear in the news very often, but this was not always the case. Like many towns in Western Australia it was born in and boomed during the gold rush days of the 1890's. Then, following the pattern which has become typical of many gold mining towns, the limit of available resources was reached and the people drifted away and the area declined. Despite these changing fortunes, Menzies continued to survive.
The first gold discovery in the Menzies area has been credited to a prospecting party led by James Speakman in 1891. His find was reported but for some unknown reasons Speakman did not return to the area.
The discovery of the rich Coolgardie field in 1892 tempted prospectors further inland. The track to Ninetymile (Goongarrie) north of Coolgardie became well known as people trying to make their fortune ventured forth.
J J Brown, C Kirby and C Jackman had found gold about 20 miles north of Ninetymile. They had sunk a shaft about six feet deep showing a reef carrying good visible gold.
L R Menzie and J E McDonald in company with Jimmy an Aboriginal tracker and Cumbra an Afghan camel driver, were prospecting for a Perth syndicate headed by Sir George Shenton. Menzie met Brown at the Ninetymile and agreed to inspect his shaft, with a view to purchase if it proved suitable. While at the show he ran short of water and journeyed to a rock soak eighteen miles east of the Ninetymile to replenish his supply. When returning he kept too far to the west and went past Brown's camp. It was at this point that he stumbled on a rich alluvial deposit.
Menzie and McDonald followed the line of the reef to the tip of a rise where they found many very rich nuggets and quartz specimens studded with gold. They packed as much as they could in their saddle bags and hurried back to Coolgardie, the nearest mining centre with a Registrar's Office, leaving Jimmy and Cumbra to guard the find. On the way they ordered tools, a forge, dynamite and groceries at the Ninetymile.
On the 1st October 1894 the claim was registered, Lease No. 1380 in the name of L R Menzie and Sir George Shenton, and Lease No. 1381 for L R Menzie and R F Scholl. These became the Lady Shenton and Florence mines and the place Menzies.
While the two were in Coolgardie, rumours of a rich find abounded and several parties started for Ninetymile to find the location. However many were forced to return because of lack of water. When Menzie and McDonald arrived back at Ninetymile dozens of eager prospectors were waiting, determined to follow them to the find. Next morning saw them on the track with a crowd of men carrying water bags eagerly tramping after them. The party travelled across a lake and off into the bush until they came to the Eight Mile (from Menzies) where they camped the night. They arrived at Pioneer Hill two miles south of Menzies about 10 o'clock next morning. A man by the name of Billy Ivory climbed the hill but could see only scrub. The party camped to the right of the present Golden Age shaft, from which position they tried to locate Menzie's leases. An Afghan employed by Brown, Kirby and Jackman came up with some quartz saying he had found the strike. The whole crowd made a rush in the direction from which the Afghan had come, and soon all hands started out to peg alluvial claims.
The news of a strike this big spread rapidly and soon the area was crowed with prospectors hoping for similar good luck. A string of mines including the Alpha, Florence, Nada, Friday, Wedderburn, Crusoe and Lady Sherry were developed soon after the registration of the Lady Shenton claim.
Of the years, which followed the discovery of the rich Lady Shenton reef, 1895 must surely have been one of the most vigorous and eventful. During this time Warden Gill marked out the townsite and issued licenses for business and residential areas. Stores, hotels and public buildings were erected and a Progress Committee was formed. Mr Hugh Mahon published the first newspaper, and by December the first land sale saw seventy-eight blocks of land realize an aggregate of $25,555.
Menzies was proclaimed a Municipality on the 20 December 1895 and the first Council was elected on 20 January 1896 with H Gregory elected as Chairman. According to the writings of Warden Owen, it was estimated that in 1896 the population was 10,000, half of whom resided in the town and the other half in the surrounding land.
In common with many of the towns in the North Coolgardie Goldfields, these early residents had to endure heat, flies, lack of water, poor diets and limited transportation, often for little or no reward. Sickness and disease plagued the early inhabitants, claiming many lives, especially among the young. The materials used to build the early buildings were an extreme fire hazard, and fires took a heavy toll.
Despite all these hardships, the people strived to make Menzies a vibrant profitable town. Water was carted to the town from surrounding lakes and underground supplies. The Government built a dam in 1897 and in 1901 this supplied water to the residences. The railway line between Kalgoorlie and Menzies was officially opened on 22 March 1898. The local Fire Brigade was formed to help control the damages caused by fire, and a Council by-law making it compulsory for at least one wall of business premises to be made of brick helped prevent the spread of many fires. Improved sanitation and a 50 bed hospital helped control the spread of disease.
Menzies at this time boasted 13 hotels, 3 banks, its own breweries and cordial factories, a Post Office with a staff of 25, a school with 205 pupils, a public library (in 1904) and 4 churches.
However, this prosperity was not to last. The gold which had made Menzies a town of major importance at the turn of the century was becoming more elusive a decade later. Figures show that production fell from 35,000 ounces in 1905 to 2,787 ounces in 1909. The population by 1910 had fallen below 1,000 and the decline of Menzies had begun. World War 1 hastened the decline, as many men who were drawn from the town were loath to return to the rigors of the gold fields after the hardships they had suffered overseas.
The general revival of gold mining during the depression years was reflected in Menzies by the renewed interest in the Lady Shenton group and the discovery of the First Hit mine. The pastoral industry, the railway line, and the nickel boom have all contributed at various times to keeping the little township alive. The 1980's and the 1990's saw another gold mining revival in Western Australia, and the future is looking a little brighter, though the boom days of the 1890's have gone, it seems, forever.
The town of Menzies was born in September, 1894 when Leslie Robert Menzie virtually stubbed his toe on the rich gold bearing rocks that later became the Lady Shenton Mine. It flickered into life with the discovery of a string of mines stretching north and south of the Lady Shenton, and for the next decade this isolated spot in the West Australian hinterland was a vibrant and prosperous town.
Stores, hotels and public buildings were erected and a Progress Committee was formed. Mr Hugh Mahon published the first newspaper, and by December, the first land sale saw 78 blocks of land realise an aggregate of 25, 555 pounds. Menzies was proclaimed a Municipality and on 20th January 1896 the Council was formed with H Gregory elected as Chairman.
The early residents had to endure heat, flies, lack of water, an unreliable food supply and limited transportation, often for little or no reward. Sickness and disease claimed many lives, especially amongst the young. The materials used for the early buildings were mostly hessian or canvas on a wooden frame, and fire took a heavy toll.
Despite all these hardships, the people strived to make Menzies a pleasant and profitable place to live. Water from salt lakes was condensed and carted to the town and in 1897 a Government dam was built. The railway line between Kalgoorlie and Menzies was officially opened on 22nd March 1898. The local Fire Brigade was formed to combat the damages caused by fire, and improved sanitation and a 50 bed hospital helped control the spread of disease.
In the late 1890s and early 1900s Menzies was the administration centre of the North Coolgardie Goldfields. There were some twenty small towns in this area: Davyhurst, Mulline, Mt Ida, Kookynie, Niagara, Yarri, Yerilla and Edjudina to name a few. From around 1905 the gold mining industry experienced a downturn and most of these towns literally disappeared. Menzies has survived but is just a shadow of its former self, and the pub at Kookynie is the only reminder of a once thriving community.
Place of Historical Interest
Town Hall & Shire Office: First section (left hand front) built in 1896. In 1900/01 the building was extended at a cost of 3,000 pounds to include Council Chambers, administration offices, public library & reading room with a town hall located at the rear of the building. The front section was completely renovate/restored from 1985 to 1988 and the rear hall was rebuilt in 1991. Further renovations were carried out on the offices in 1999.
Clock: Folklore suggests a clock for the clock tower was sent out from England via S.S. "Orizaba" in 1905. Unfortunately Orizaba sank off the coast of Rottnest Island. Eventually a clock was installed in the tower and unveiled on 1st January 2000.
Railway Station: Built in 1898 when the railway line was extended from Kalgoorlie to Menzies. Has not been used by Westrail since 1974. Renovated by a mining company in 1987 and used as their quarters and administration office.
School: Built in 1898 to accommodate 200 pupils. Now known as the Menzies Remote Community School and has an enrolment of 61 students (as at December 2009) , with 3 teachers and a principal.
Old Police Station & quarters: Built in 1911 and used till 1985. (Now private residence).
Nursing Post: Lovely old stone building. Formerly Mining Wardens residence, W Lambden-Owen (author of Cossack Gold) was Warden of North Coolgardie Goldfield in 1896.
Cemetery: Many graves of pioneers and children. Has not been used since 1939.
Butcher shop/tea shop: Two of the many small shops that lined Shenton Street in early days.
Baker's Oven: Ruins of Wells Bakery.
Old Menzies Hotel: (Now private residence). Established by Harry Gregory in 1895. Gregory was the first Mayor of Menzies in 1896/97 and was later Minister for Mines in WA Parliament.
Railway Hotel: (Now called Menzies Hotel) In the boom days there were 13 hotels and 3 breweries in Menzies.
Old Lady Shenton Hotel: One of the former establishments of early Menzies and now houses the Visitor Centre, Town Library, Spinifex Art Gallery, Telecentre acess and Community Postal Agency
Old Post Office: (Now private residence) In 1897 the Post Office had a staff of 26.
Battery: (Now private residence) Former State Battery established in 1955.